Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (2023)

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (1)

boyfriend3is the chemical formula for a colorless, pungent odor-producing toxic gas called boron trifluoride. It is an inorganic compound widely used as a catalyst for a number of chemical reactions.

As its name suggests, boron trifluoride consists of a boron (B) atom in the center, surrounded by three fluorine (F) atoms. Each B-F bond is individually polar, but the overall BF bond3molecule is nonpolar. Because is what? Let's find out together by discussing the basics associated with BF polarity3.

is a boyfriend3polar or non-polar?

Boron trifluoride (BF3) is a nonpolar molecule. This nonpolarity is attributed to the highly symmetric geometric structure of the molecule. boyfriend3has trigonal plane geometry. Each B-F bond is polar due to an electronegativity difference between the central boron and each halogen, that is, fluorine.

The polarity of each B-F bond is usually canceled by borrowing the BF3molecule a dipole moment net of zero.

Molecule nameBoron trifluoride (BF3)
title typePolar Covalent
molecular geometrytrigonal plana
¿Polar or Apolar?global nonpolar molecule
dipole momentZero
connection angle120º

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Why is it BF?3no polar?

boyfriend3it is a planar molecule with all four atoms in one plane. Three fluorine atoms surround the central boron in a triangular arrangement (3 vertices), so the geometric shape of boron trifluoride is known as a trigonal plane.

According to the chemical theory of valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR), BF3it is an AB3-like molecule with three bond pairs and no lone pairs around the central boron.

that makes bf3a highly symmetric molecule. The three B-F bonds are equivalent, so the general BF3molecule is non-polar.

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (2)

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (3)

Three factors dominate the polarity of all molecules in general:

  • electronegativity
  • dipole moment
  • molecular geometry

Let's analyze each of the three concepts to understand the nonpolar nature of BF3improve:

Factors Affecting BF Polarity3


Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons from a covalent bond.

boyfriend3consists of three single covalent bonds.Boron (B) has three valence electrons.belonging to Group III-A of the Periodic Table.Fluorine (F) has seven valence belongs to a halogen of Group VII-A.

Each F forms a single covalent bond with the central B in BF3so that each F has a complete octet configuration.

Atomgroup numberElectronic configurationvalence electrons
Boro (B)III-A (release 13)1s22s22p13
Flúor (F)VII-A (I am 17 years old)1s22s22p57

The electronegativity of F (E.N= 3.98) is much higher than the electronegativity of B (E.N= 2.04). Instead, fluorine is the most electronegative element on the periodic table.

Therefore, each F strongly attracts the shared pair of electrons from each B-F bond. This makes the central boron partly positively charged (Bd+) while each fluorine gains a partial negative charge (Fd-) without boyfriend3molecule.

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (4)

For a bond to be polar, the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms involved must be equal to or greater than 0.5.

Atomelectronegativityelectronegativity difference
Boro (B)3,983,98 – 2,04 = 1,94
Flúor (F)2.04

Thus, each B-F bond in BF3molecule is polar.

However, the polarity of the bond does not always determine the overall polarity of a molecule. We should have already been made aware of the fact that the binding polarity of a molecule may or may not be the same as its overall polarity because there are two other factors involved.

dipole moment

The dipole moment (µ) measures the separation between opposite electrical charges.

It is defined as the product of the magnitude of the charge (Q) and the separation of the charge, that is, the bond length (r)

It has a symbol called Debye (D). 1D= 3.33564x10-30Cm. The symbol C represents Coulomb (unit of charge) while m is meter (unit of distance).

The dipole moment of a polar bond is directed from the partially positive center to the partially negative center.

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (5)

Considering the difference in electronegativity between a B atom and an F atom, that is, 3.98-2.04 = 1.94, the dipole moment of each B-F bond is 1.94 D. The direction of this dipole moment is boron (Bd+) a flúor (Fd-).

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (6)

But the net dipole moment of BF3is zero due to its highly symmetric geometry, which leads us to discuss the third and final factor that controls BF3polarity, that is, molecular geometry.

molecular geometry

boyfriend3molecule has a trigonal planar geometry. Each boron in the molecule is sp2hybridized, also known as trigonal hybridization.

One s and two p atomic orbitals combine to form three new sp equivalents2hybrid orbitals.

the three sp2the boron hybrid orbitals lie in the same plane and are directed to the three vertices of an equilateral triangle to form a bond with the p orbital of the F atom.

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (7)

Therefore, the name trigonal planar is given to the geometric form of BF3. Each B-F bond length is equal, that is, 130 pm, making a mutual bond angle of 120°.

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (8)

Is the BF3 polar or non-polar? - boron trifluoride (9)

The dipole moment of the downward pointing B-F bond (red arrow) cancels out with the combined dipole moment of the two remaining B-F bonds (blue arrow).So the B.F.3molecule in general has a net dipole moment of 0 and BF3is a non-polar molecule.

Read also:-

  • BF3 Lewis structure, molecular geometry and its bond angle
  • How to know if a molecule is polar or nonpolar?
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  • Is CO2 polar or nonpolar?
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  • Is SO3 polar or nonpolar?
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  • Is HCN polar or nonpolar?
  • Is CCl4 polar or nonpolar?
  • Is XeF4 polar or nonpolar?
  • Is CH2O polar or nonpolar?
  • Is CHCl3 polar or nonpolar?
  • Is BrF5 polar or nonpolar?
  • Is SF6 polar or non-polar?
  • Is PCl5 polar or nonpolar?

Difference between polar and nonpolar molecules.

polar moleculenon-polar molecule
Atoms that have a difference in
Atoms can have the same or different electronegativity values.
Uneven load distribution in generalEqual charge distribution in general
Net dipole moment greater than 0liquid dipole moment equals zero
Examples include water (H2O), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), ammonia (NH3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), etc.,Examples include oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4) and boron trifluoride (BF3).

Boron Trifluoride Uses

  • As a catalyst in organic synthesis.
  • As an initiator in polymerization reactions.
  • In pest control by fumigation
  • As an adhesive, adsorbent and/or fuel additive in automotive and industrial manufacturing
  • For the production of pharmaceutical drugs.
  • As a binder in the pulp manufacturing industry

Frequent questions

is a boyfriend3polar or non-polar?

  • The titles present in the BF3are polar, but in general (BF3) the molecule is non-polar.
  • Due to its symmetrical structure it results in the cancellation of the dipole moment.
  • The net dipole moment for BF3is zero and this demonstrates its nonpolar nature.

How to know if a bond is polar?

The difference in electronegativity between the atoms involved determines the polarity of a bond.

The atoms must have an electronegativity difference greater than 0 for a bond to be polar.

What three factors determine the polarity of a molecule?

Electronegativity, dipole moment, and molecular geometry are the three factors that control the polarity of a molecule.

Why is it BF?3no polar?

boyfriend3It has a symmetrical geometric structure. The polarities of the B-F bonds cancel in opposite directions, giving a net dipole moment of zero for the BF3molecule. Therefore, it is not polar.

o3Does it have polar connections?

The three titles in BF3They are polar due to the difference in electronegativity between them.

What is the molecular geometry of BF?3?

boyfriend3has trigonal plane geometry. The central boron is sp2hybridized. forms a sp2bond -p with each fluorine, located at the three corners of the equilateral triangle.

The bond angles at the BF3molecule is 120°.

Which is polar between NH3and boyfriend3?

boyfriend3is nonpolar while NH3is polar The polarity of NH3due to its asymmetric shape. It has a trigonal pyramidal geometry with three bonding pairs and one lone pair at the central nitrogen.

The N-H bond polarities do not cancel, so it has a net dipole moment greater than zero, unlike BF3which has zero dipole moment.

Learn more about:

  • Why is NH3 polar?
  • Molecular geometry of NH3 and Lewis structure

Physicochemical properties of BF3

  • Boron trifluoride (BF3) is a gas at room temperature and pressure.
  • Its melting point is -126.8°C, while the boiling point of BF3is -100.3°C.
  • Too much molar from BF3= atomic mass (B) + 3 [atomic mass (F)] = 10.8+ 3(19)= 67.8 g/mol.
  • It has a high solubility in cold water, that is, about 106%. 332g of BF3dissolves in 100 grams of water.
  • It is naturally toxic and corrosive to metals.
  • It has a pungent odor.
  • It is colorless but white smoke from BF3it can be seen in humid air due to its interaction with H2O.
  • Boron trifluoride is a Lewis acid, it can donate an electron pair and participate in many different chemical reactions.

chemical reactions bf3

Acid-base reaction:

Acting as a Lewis acid, BF3it can react with a Lewis base (which tends to accept electrons) such as the ether to form an addition product called an adduct.

hydrolysis reaction

Boron trifluoride can undergo a chemical decomposition reaction with the addition of water. Boric acid and fluoroboric acid are formed.

⇒ 4BF3+3H2O → 3HBF4+ B(OH)4

halide exchange reaction

boyfriend3it can undergo a halide exchange reaction with other boron halides such as boron trifluoride (BCl3).

⇒ BF3+ BCl3→BF2Cl+BCl2F

Other BF reactions3may include its participation as a catalyst in the Friedel alkylation, nitration, sulfonation, and esterification of aromatic organic compounds.


  • Boron trifluoride (BF3) is a non-polar molecule.
  • The nonpolarity of BF3is due to its highly symmetric trigonal planar geometry with equal bond lengths and a mutual bond angle of 120°.
  • Each B-F bond is polar due to the difference in electronegativity between a boron atom and a fluorine atom.
  • The dipole moments of the polar bonds vanish due to the symmetrical geometry.
  • Or non-BF liquid dipole moment3molecule is zero, which leads to BF3not polarity.
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