learning outcome B4
It is the most abundant type of tissue and widely
distributed throughout the body.
It is found in the blood, under the skin, in the bones and
around many organs.
connected, part of
It also works as support and protection,
It allows the storage and transport of fats.
Most connective tissues share two
Both have a good blood supply.
Ligaments, tendons, and cartilage are also types of
connective tissue, but no blood
This is the reason why lesions in these areas heal.
They have abundant intracellular matrix.
The intercellular matrix is what makes types.
of connective tissue so different.
Located outside the cells and fills in the spaces.
Cells secrete matrix and it fills
The hardness of the intercellular matrix varies
from cell to cell.
The matrix can be liquid like blood, gelatinous like
in adipose or hard tissue such as bone.
The amount of matrix also varies between cells.
In adipose tissue, the cells are close to each other;
with very little intercellular matrix.
Bones and cartilage have very few cells and
large amounts of intercellular matrix.
Also in the matrix of most connective tissues.
are protein fibers
Strong and flexible collagen, but only
slightly elastic, white.
Elastin not very strong, but elastic,
in yellow color
The reticular fibers (thin collagen) also
strong and very flexible
It is used to remove unwanted wrinkles and
Use bovine collagen or patient collagen
hips, thighs or abdomen.
It is injected under the skin and fills in the unwanted ones.
loose connective tissue (areolar)
It is under the skin and most of the epithelial tissue.
It is also found between the muscles.
Functions for binding, cushions,
protects and acts as a glue for fabrics.
Made up of collagen and elastic fibers in a
Soft and protects and cushions many organs.
Holds organs in position.
One layer underlies all the mucous membranes.
Adipose connective tissue is found under the skin (subcutaneous).
layer), around the heart and kidneys, behind the eyeballs.
Functions to cushion, isolate and store fat.
A type of loose connective tissue that supports fat.
It can insulate the body and prevent heat loss. Deposited around certain organs.
The example holds the kidneys in place.
Dense fibrous connective tissue Includes tendons, ligaments, and skin
(dermis). Functions to join structures. It contains a lot of collagen and elastic fibers. The main type of fiber is collagen; mold
strong supporting structures: tendons, ligaments and fascia. Tendons are rope-like structures that attach
muscle to bone. Ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissue.
that cross joints and join bone to bone.
Ligaments contain more elastic fibers than tendons; therefore, they have a higher elongation capacity.
Stretching: Prevents ligaments from tearing when the joints bend. Fascias are bands and/or sheets of dense tissue
fibrous connective tissue.
It covers muscles, blood vessels and nerves.
It works to cover, support, and anchor organs to nearby structures.
Tendons and ligaments can be torn and
stretch with overstretch.
Example: A ruptured Achilles tendon causes
loss of motion because the tendons are attached
the leg muscle to the heel.
reticular connective tissue
Produces lymphoid tissue; make up the lymph
lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow.
Functions to form the internal structure of
Made up of cells known as chondrocytes.
Chondrocytes secrete a protein that is
placed in the intercellular matrix, this
allows the matrix to be firm, smooth and
Although the matrix is solid, it is not so
hard as the matrix of bone.
Most of the cartilage is covered by a
The perichondrium is a layer of connective tissue
tissue that carries blood vessels
The perichondrium supplies oxygen and
Nutrients for cartilage.
Cartilage does not have its own blood.
a. hyaline cartilage
Located at the ends of the long bones and at the
It also connects the ribs to the sternum.
It forms rings in the trachea.
It forms the nose and the fetal skeleton.
Function to support, protect and provide
structure for the body.
It forms the intervertebral discs, cushions in
the knee joint and the pads inside the pubis
Functions to cushion and support
C. Elastic cartilage
It forms the external ear and part of the
Functions to support and provide
form the skeleton
Support functions of the body and
provide the structure
Also known as bone tissue.
The bone cells are called osteocytes.
Bone cells secrete a
matrix composed of collagen, calcium salts
and other minerals.
Collagen provides flexibility and
A matrix becomes hard, like bone.
when minerals are deposited.
The hardness of the bone allows it to protect the organs.
like the brain
Bone also acts as a storage site for
mineral salts such as calcium.
When mineralization of bone tissue is
diminished, the bone weakens and
tends to break easily.
This is known as osteoporosis.
Calcium is the most important mineral.
especially in childhood and
Menopause due to lack of estrogen.
Estrogen helps deposit calcium in the
bone; as well as weight-bearing activities
nutrient transport function,
hormones, respiratory gases (O2 and
CO2) and waste.
Lymph Composes all lymphatic vessels Works to drain all interstitial fluid and
functions in immunity. Blood and lymph are two types so connective
tissue that has a watery intercellular matrix.
Blood is surrounded by an intercellular matrix known as plasma.
Plasma does not contain elastin or collagen; contains a non-fibrous plasma protein.
Lymph is found in lymphatic tissue.
Includes the brain, spinal cord, and
Made up of two types of cells: neurons
Neurons transmit electrical signals to the
brain and spinal cord
Neurons come in many shapes and sizes.
Neurons are made up of three parts:
The dendrites receive information from
other neurons and then transmits information
towards the cell body.
The cell body contains the nucleus and is
essential for life.
A single axon carries information far from
the cell body.
Neuroglia are cells that support and make
take care of neurons
These cells support and bind
the vast network of neurons.
Neuroglia do not transmit electricity.
Composed of cells that shorten and contract.
The cells are long and thin; that is why they are called fibers instead of cells.
There are three types of muscle fibers: 1. Skeletal attached to bone Also known as striated (also known as streaks).
muscle tissue Function of moving the skeleton; Y
maintains posture and stabilizes joints.
2. Smooth muscle found in the walls of viscera and organs.
Example stomach, intestine, urinary bladder. They also form the walls of the bronchioles and the blood.
glasses The function is related to the location.
A small muscle in the stomach helps to grind and turn food.
A small muscle in the bladder helps expel urine.
Smooth muscle is not controlled voluntarily, which is why it is known as involuntary muscle.
not striated; hence known as non-striated muscle
3. Cardiac muscle found only in the heart.
and pumps blood through the blood vessels.
The heart muscle is striated.
Muscle fibers are long branching fibers that
fit firmly into the joints.
Closed junctions are called intercalated discs.
and promote rapid conduction of electricity
signals through the heart.
There are two types of tissue repair: 1. Regeneration Replacement of tissue by cells
which are identical to the original cells. This occurs only in cells undergoing mitosis, such as
like epithelial cells
2. Fibrosis is the replacement of injured tissue by the formation of fibrous connective tissue or scar tissue.
Scar tissue fibers connect the edges of a wound and strengthen the area.
Damaged skeletal, cardiac, and nervous tissues do not undergo mitosis and must be replaced by scar tissue.
1. Deep skin injury that breaks blood vessels; causing blood to fill the wound.
2. A blood clot forms, and as it dries, a scab forms.
3. Tissue repair begins; scar tissue forms in the deep layer.
4. At the same time, surface epithelial cells multiply and fill in the area between the scar tissue and the scab.
5. When the epithelium is complete, the cortex is shed.
6. A fully generated layer of epithelium over an underlying area of scar tissue.
Belly refers to the enlarged fleshy part of a muscle between the attachment points.
Each muscle is made up of thousands of unique muscle fibers (also known as muscle cells).
Large skeletal muscles are surrounded by a layer of tough connective tissue known as fascia.
The epimysium is the outer layer of the fascia. The fascia extends and attaches to the bone as
The perimysium is another layer of connective tissue that surrounds smaller bundles of muscle fibers.
Fasculae are small bundles of muscle fibers.
The endomysium is the third layer of connective tissue that surrounds the fascicles that contain individual muscle fibers.
Muscles attach to other structures in three ways: Tendons attach muscle to bone Muscle attaches directly to bone Fascia is a flat fascia that connects
muscle to muscle and muscle to bone.
Muscle fibers have more than one nucleus and are surrounded by a cell membrane known as the sarcolemma.
At various points, the cell membrane penetrates deep into the muscle fibers forming transverse tubules (T-tubules).
Muscle fibers have a specialized endoplasmic reticulum known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Each muscle fiber is made up of a long cylindrical structure called myofibrils.
Sarcomeres are small contractile units that form myofibrils.
Each sarcomere extends from a Z line to a Z line and is made up of a unique arrangement of two contractile proteins: actin and myosin.
The Z line occurs at the end of each sarcomere Thin actin filaments extend from the Z line
toward the center of the sarcomere. The thickest myosin filaments are found among the
actin filaments. The arrangement of myosin and actin gives
skeletal and cardiac muscle their striped appearance.
When muscles contract, they shorten.
They shorten because the sarcomeres
Sarcomeres shorten because actin
and myosin filaments slide along a
Sarcomeres shorten when myosin
the head comes into contact with the actin;
forming a temporary cross bridge.
Once the cross bridge is formed; myosin
head turns; pulling actin towards
and center of the sarcomere.
Rotation of the myosin head causes
actin slides through myosin.
Muscle relaxation occurs when the cross
the bridges are broken and the actin and
the myosin returns to its original position.
formation of cross bridges and
release is dependent on ATP.
When a person dies, the cells no longer produce
Prevents muscle detachment
It helps to determine the time of death, because
rigor begins two hours after death; spikes
at 12 and finished in 36 hours.
ATP helps myosin heads form and break.
actin bridges. ATP only works in the presence of calcium. When the muscle is relaxed; Calcium is stored in
the RS away from actin and myosin. When the muscle is stimulated; calcium is
released from RS and elicits actin; myosin and ATP to interact.
When calcium is pumped back into the RS, away from actin, myosin, and ATP, the cross-bridges are broken and the muscle relaxes.
Calcium is essential for muscle contractions.
Skeletal muscle contraction occurs only in muscle that has been stimulated by a nerve.
The somatic (motor) nerve innervates skeletal muscle.
A somatic nerve stems from the spinal cord and provides nerve stimulation to various muscles.
Neuromuscular junction: It is an area where the motor nerve meets the muscle.
The structures within the UNM are: Membrane at the end of the nerve
A space between the nerve ending and the muscle membrane.
The receptors are located in the muscle membrane.
The stimulated nerve causes a release of
Chemicals that diffuse through the
NMJ and stimulates muscle membranes.
There are four steps involved in the transfer.
nerve-to-muscle information at UNM. 1. Nerve stimulation causes an electrical signal
move along the nerve toward the nerve ending.
2. Nerve endings contain membranous sacs
known as vesicles filled with substances known as
3. The neurotransmitter in NMJ is
4. Nerve impulses cause the gallbladder to
advance and fuse with the nerve
5. Ach is released into the space between
6. Ach diffuses through the space and binds to receptor sites on the muscle membrane.
7. Ach stimulates the receptor and causes a
electrical signal to develop along muscle membranes.
8. Ach leaves the binding site and is
immediately destroyed by an enzyme; which is located in the NMJ.
9. The enzyme is called
10. Ready-to-use free link sites
additional pain when the nerve is
When the electrical signal reaches the muscle membrane, it travels along the membrane and triggers a series of events that result in muscle contractions.
The electrical signal crosses the membrane and enters the interior through the T tubules.
The electrical signal causes the RS to release calcium.
Calcium flows into the sarcomeres and allows for the interaction of actin, myosin, and ATP, which is the energy used to produce muscle contraction.
Eventually, calcium is pumped back into the RS and muscle relaxation can occur.
Myasthenia Gravis: The symptoms of this disease are due to damaged receptor sites in muscle membranes.
Prevents Ach binding Impairs muscle contraction; results
extreme muscle weakness It results in poor exercise tolerance;
difficulty lifting the eyelids and shortness of breath.
Neurotoxins are chemicals that alter the normal functioning of the nervous system.
Neurotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Example: Clostridium tetani secretes a neurotoxin; which causes excessive firing of motor neurons.
This causes an excessive release of Ach, overstimulation of the muscle membrane, causing severe muscle spasms and titanic contractions.
Causing Tetanus The disease is often called lockjaw because
the jaw muscles are often the first to be affected.
Example: Clostridium botulinum bacteria appears when food has been improperly processed or canned.
Causes botulism; which is a very serious form of food poisoning.
Neurotoxins prevent the release of Ach at nerve endings.
Without Ach; it means that the muscles cannot contract.
The muscles, including the respiratory muscles, are paralyzed.
Contraction of a whole muscle versus a single muscle fiber
A single muscle fiber contracts completely, not partially or not at all.
An entire muscle can partially contract, depending on the purpose of the contractions.
Muscles can vary in strength and contraction; due to the number of muscle fibers used.
Picking up a pencil activates several hundred
Lifting a 100-pound weight activates several
miles of fibers
All muscle fibers fully contract;
additional strength is provided by recruiting
additional muscle fibers.
It is used to describe full muscle contractions.
Contraction: if a single stimulus is administered to a muscle; the muscle contracts and relaxes completely.
Tetanus: the muscle is repeatedly stimulated without time to relax.
The muscle remains contracted. The titanic muscular contractions are sustained and
smooth; and play an important role in maintaining posture.
If the muscles that maintain posture were to contract, we would not be able to stand upright.
do not block
It is the continuous state of partial muscle contraction.
Tone is due to the contraction of different groups of muscle fibers within a complete muscle.
To keep the tone; a group of muscle fibers contracts.
As these fibers relax, a second group of muscle fibers contracts.
Smooth Muscle Muscle tone in blood vessels helps maintain blood pressure.
ATP is consumed by muscle contraction and replaced in three ways Aerobic metabolism is the presence of oxygen; fuels
how glycogen, glucose and fasting can be completely broken down to produce energy (ATP)
Anaerobic metabolism is when the body can metabolize fuels in the absence of oxygen.
Without oxygen, complete breakdown of the fuel is not possible and lactic acid is produced.
Lactic acid buildup is the cause of muscle soreness after intense exercise.
Creatine phosphate contains energy that
the body can use to replenish ATP
rapidly during muscle contraction.
form of energy storage
Origin and insertion refers to the place of
When a muscle contracts at a joint;
a bone remains stationary.
muscle of origin that inserts into a
Insertion muscle that attaches to most
Example: the origin of the biceps brachii is the scapula while the insertion is on the radius
A contraction of the biceps brachii, the radius is pulled toward the scapula
Movement is usually performed by a group of muscles, but a single muscle is responsible for most of the movement.
The prime movers are the main muscles responsible for most of the movement.
Synergists are the auxiliary muscles that help move the prime mover.
Antagonists are muscles that oppose the movement of another muscle.
Example - biceps contraction
brachial; the main engine, pulls the lower
arm to shoulder. the triceps
brachii are the antagonists. he opposes
action of the biceps brachii pulling the
forearm away from the scapula.
The overloaded muscles will increase in size.
The heart muscle can also suffer
hypertrophy; this usually indicates the
the heart is working hard.
Example: Hypertension Causes the heart to push blood into the blood
vessels that are resistant to blood flow
This extra work makes the heart enlarge.
It occurs if the muscles are not used.
They shrink in size.
Example - a person with a broken leg
Occurs if the muscle is immobilized by a
long period of time
It is an abnormal formation of fibrous tissue.
inside a muscle, causes the muscles to freeze
in a flexed position and severely restricts
The name is based on the following
number of origins
origin and insertion
deltoids - triangular
trapezoid - trapezoid
Rhomboideus - rombóide
teres - round
vast - enormous
maximum - large
minimal - small
short - short
challenge - challenge
oblique - diagonal
Transverse - through
circular - circular
pectoral - chest
Gluteus - buttocks
brachii - arm
below - below
under - under
lateral - lateral
Number of sites in which the muscle is found
Number of sites in which the muscle is found
The abductor muscle moves away
The adductor muscle moves toward the midline
The flexor causes flexion.
The extension straightens the limb.
Elevator lifts a structure
masetter te permite masticar
There are two categories: Facial muscles
It is inserted directly into the soft tissue of the
skin and other skin muscles
When the facial muscles contract; they pull
the soft tissue.
It is a flat muscle that covers the frontal.
It extends from the cranial aponeurosis to the
The function is contraction, which raises the
eyebrow and forehead wrinkles
(PDF) Muscular and connective tissue - Mrs. Trimble - Homemstrimbleswebsite.weebly.com/.../8/1/8581140/muscle_… 2013-08-27Functions to cushion, isolate and store... Functions - DOKUMEN. END (2023)
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